antiques: 5/20/2020

A bed is the resting place for all mammals including humans and animals. The difference being that humans are capable and intelligent enough to make them more comfortable and design them as per their convenience and comfort or space requirements whereas the animals could not do these, for them a bed is place where they can sleep and be safe from danger. BED can be defined as the article or a piece of furniture which allows the user to lie down and rest. Bed is that piece of furniture where the person can straighten his legs and lay down, parallel to the ground level making blood circulation uniform and hence relaxing the whole body. Straight posture while sleeping relaxes the leg muscles, backbone, and head (skull) thus inducing sleep and relaxing the person as a whole. This is the reason that Beds have become a necessity for the man�s daily life. Man�s imagination and craving for more comfort has enabled this piece of furniture to undergo changes in designs and structure for a lot of time since ages. Every era, every century has a mark of its style on not only the architecture but also the furniture as well.

Lavish and ornate beds were designed for the royalty by the craftsman of the particular era. For craftsmen, it became the field of to show their superiority and creativity. Most lavish beds embedded with rubies, find mention in the antique beds of medieval times and even in this millennium as well which were proudly show cased, to a selected few. Theseantique beds have now become a part of the legacy of the museums world over which show case these piece of excellent craftsmanship to the new generation. Though some of the Antique beds are in bad conditions and tattered, after so many years. Humidity affects the upkeep of both wood and iron beds. The professionals render their service to put life into these fading legacies of history. These professionals try to re-instate these work of art, and sometimes even reproduce or re make these beds on the structure of the original bed. Even when these beds are sold in the auction or otherwise, the buyer at times, tries to re-instate them. The feeling of using the same bed or sleeping on the same bed which was once used by one of the historical figure or just to witness something from the era of our forefathers/ancestors makes the prices of these beds sky rocket. There are craftsmen these days who can design the beds as the ones like antique beds. These arty craftsmen copy or imitate the designs and put in their designs and mould the structure according to the tastes or need/convenience of the buyer. These crafted beds are made on specific designs or comforts of the buyer and customized to his convenience. The most expensive bed these days is a designer bed which floats in the air. It is designed by Japanese scientist and is estimated to be of worth 1.5 million dollars. It uses magnetic field and thus keeps it afloat, suspended in the air. A bed�s structure consists of three main parts namely, headboard, foot board, and frame rails.

These have to be joined together to give stability and strength to the bed. These parts consists of small parts which are arranged in accordance to the design, size or structure of the bed as per the buyer�s need. The antique beds stand out because of their quality not only are these superbly designed but also because of the material used and the time dedicated by the arty craftsmen on these beds, overlooking all the major details be it minor or intricate. The craze in the 1800s was of �Hand Made Beds� these were specially worked upon by the craftsmen himself with his team, at times many days were consumed to build one bed only. This trend is even popular now, and the cost of such type of beds is many times the ordinary beds. The size of the antique beds are also special, at times these were created or build inside the palaces or rooms as it would have been difficult to build and deliver in the room because of the sheer size of the bed.

The iron beds were used in the years preceding world war. Iron beds were made popular because of not only their variety and style but also because of their durability, and light weightiness in comparison to the wooden beds. The strained supply of iron during the world war prompted the extensive use of cold steel for making beds. There are incidents quoted in the history about the architecture and designs of furniture of different countries and cultures. The example of Romans� suggests that they had four kinds of beds. A bed used for only sleeping and relaxing was called Chamber bed. This was basically limited to the lower strata of the society. There was Table Bed mainly used by the Romans to lie down and eat and drink simultaneously. These were leisure beds which were large in size as well as they had the space for 3 people. A different type of bed was used to study or to go through the official work. A fourth kind of bed was the one used only for taking the deceased to the cremation ground before consigning to fire. The ancient or antique beds are rarely found and can only be witnessed either in auctions or at the museums. Though there are institutions who have procured these antique beds. These antique beds have a price tag which is decided by the prospective buyer. These being a part of history, are invaluable and to evaluate them monetarily is a difficult job and thus is decided by the active imagination or interest of the buyer, or the co-bidders. The term BED is also used in scientific terminology as well. This denotes the base or resting platform for the various components or machinery.
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Book is a collection of papers/pages which depict/denote words, sentences, photos, making a meaningful organized data or information. An antique book is the one which is very old like the original epics of RAMAYANA, GITA, or the BIBLE. These books have stood the test of time and still preserved as asset. These are mainly spiritual books or the compilation of scientific or philosophical brainstorming. These antiques books also have among themselves war stories and strategies employed by various kingdoms. In some we can find reflection of lifestyles and leisure of that particular era. An antique book is also referred to the book or guide/book containing information about antiques. Antique is/are the objects or articles/commodities or pieces of arts, which are more than a hundred years old. These articles are considered as old-fashioned. Antique is a Latin word that denotes old. The age of the object makes it unique and this uniqueness is thus termed as invaluable by the collectors of these historical objects. The commercial value and scope of these articles, is immense. The collection of these articles by a selected few people in the world, and even the government and states, have made this a unique industry, though it is not termed as formal industry but if the amount of money involved in transaction of procuring the antiques can be considerd, then it may even leave many industrial segments way behind.

The number of people, professionals and the companies involved in the trading and owning these antiques if taken into account, makes it worth a formidable industry segment. Antiques also provide employment to many people, including the professionals. The formal and disciplined structure of the working and operation in the antique market has made people aware and instilled curiosity among the masses as well. Since everybody carries in his heart the pride and love for the culture, and the ancestors; anything related to that culture that too from past is revered as a part of the legacy from the ancestors. Though they might not afford these articles but they surely have interest in tracking them and witnessing them. This is giving rise to a platform or area in market/economy, which will be the link between the demand and supply for the antique articles. The list of operators or sellers/auctioneers can be found in a compiled list of the places and professionals in this business. This antique guide/book helps the customer/client to channelize his effects and approach in the right places or people. These antique guide/books also furnish important information on the antique articles or objects. Online Platform such as online guide/books makes the work of searching, a lot more easier for the customer. These antique guide/books also act as the source of revenue generation for the sellers, who earlier had only a selected a few in the particular area, to whom these artifacts could be displayed to and sold. The compilation and introduction of these antique guide/books made the pitch global rather than regional. The printed version of the antique guide/books helps the regional and local people to know, where to seek the desired items, locally.

Modern cities have seen increase in the rise of such outlets offering antiques. These outlets offer small antiques at a price which is affordable to the common man .The auction houses also take the help of these antique guide/books to, publicize the particular auction or to invite the prospective bidders to the auction. These antiques guide/books also provide a meeting ground of professionals who serve this field of antique evaluation, maintenance and tracing .It is advised to consult with the professionals before buying any antique, as he can guide/book you to the various aspects of which one might not be aware of or might not have the in-sight into. Even the sellers of the antiques take the guidance and help from these professionals to reconstruct or maintain a dying piece of art/antique, before auctioning it. There is a time period given to the buyers/bidders, at the auction when they could watch these articles closely and make an evaluation by themselves. Hence, the buyer as well as the seller should have the entire information about the article on the block, to be sold. The lack of knowledge or disregard to any piece of information, can lead to undermining or less pricing of an article, which may mean loss to the seller. Simultaneously, a buyer might overbid for an antique, which might not be the worth of money being paid .In many states the auctioneer needs to be licensed person or a licensed firm to carry out the auction. These auctions are of different types some auctions have a minimum bid and if the bidding did not reach to the particular minimum bid, the item is not sold. In other auctions there may be a charge levied by the auction house or auctioneer on the seller for a percentage on the article when/if sold. Antiques are seen from the art lover�s point of view and hence can be valued by the buyer only. These historical article known as antiques, are timeless and invaluable but to put a tag on them in monetary terms, is one of the difficult part of the work.

Antique guide/books are the best places to track the related information for any aspects of antiques. A brief history of the antique is also attached to give the customer a peek into the facts and what to expect out of a bid. Additional information on the subject and the article can also be found in these guide/books. Antique guide/books work as excellent help to the novice and amateurs who might have discovered the taste and inkling for the antiques. The insight and first hand knowledge on where to look for the particular category of items; how to prepare for the bidding; the inside out of the auction process and handing over process; and most importantly the tips for healthy maintenance of the artifacts, after possessing the antique. The tips and useful Dos and Don�ts help the prospect or an art lover to get prepared for the responsibility of taking the timeless legacy forward. These historical artifacts instill a feeling of nostalgia and awe in the art lovers as by just being in the same frame and so close to an antique, one feels taken to an entirely different level. One feels himself to be a part of the history and through the antique, try to get close to it. The owner of these artifacts should also remember the responsibility of possessing such a gift of art by taking a good care of them and pass them to the next generation learn and experience the same things that we in our generation might have felt in witnessing the small but not insignificant part of history.
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Desk as the name suggests is a commodity or an article or a piece either wood/metal, which is generally used in human habitats for the purpose of rendering usefulness and a stable and flat platform for studying/writing. The Desk can be for decoration or a showpiece or even a utility object. Desk used to be a luxury accessory in the historic times, as the cost of procurement of such articles was high; hence could only be afforded by particular class or the royalty. Desk of those times could not generally sustain the lashing of time thus very few articles or Desk could be retrieved from those times. Antique Desk thus, is/are the ones from the last century or so. Antique Desk were designed and made by a selected craftsman of that time. Each era or age showed its own unique features and styles in designs of not only architecture but also of the furniture like Desk, and craftsmanship. The articles like Desk, retrieved were mainly made of wood and wrought iron. Metal was introduced in the recorded history at sometime around 2000BC.These antiques were designed and customized as per the convenience and usefulness of the prospective buyer. Care was taken by the craftsman to keep in mind the taste of the buyer and the utility, as briefed by the prospective owner of the furniture. Hence Desks were made either movable or fixed/stationary catering to the particular needs.

The traces of the Desk can be related to the Stone Age or the pre historic time when humans were nomads and used to roam from places to places in search of food. The inception of civilization considered to be starting near the water bodies like river, give an in depth peak into the earliest civilization such as harrapan civilization. Not only were their cities with modern amenities such as roads and community center, but these places boasted of a distinct style of craftsmanship in not only architecture but also in the lifestyle and objects used for their usefulness such as furniture. As in the case of many other trends like architecture, the Greeks and Egyptians introduced the best-known designs in Desks. These were then sold to Romans who took these designs and fused their own designs in Desk to give great examples of craftsmanship. The royalty was treated with lavishly designed Desks not only in their palaces but also in the community centers and the courts. Many of the antique articles have faded away in oblivion mainly due to poor keep up and maintenance of these legendry legacies by the heirs of the owners of these pieces of arts. Climatic condition like humidity, plays important role in the lifeline of the objects particularly made of wood and metal. The astonishing fact of the antique Desk is the durability; most of the articles retrieved can stand the termite attack, which clearly show the expertise in selecting the raw material and finishing done by the craftsmen. As the humans started settling down in civilization they created stable homes and decorated them with items of necessity, which turned into the so-called “furniture”. The archaeological excavations have discovered intact pieces of immaculate designs of furniture like desks, tables and chairs. Stones, marble, granite and even glass were used to give a different and unique style to the prevalent styles in desks. The royalty were furnished lavishly and ornated Desk with the expensive stones imbibed and embedded in the Desk itself. This became a field to showcase the creativity and imagination of the craftsmanship even in the modern history.

We find references in the 18th century when the metal was used in Desk but the cost of furniture, which was handmade or came in the direct supervision of a skilled craftsman, were priced high. Here the craftsman with his team is involved in each step of making a piece of Desk like designing, cutting, assembling and even polishing; such services were afforded only by the selected few to cater to the artistic taste of them or mostly to show off the specially designed work of art as a prized possession.

The antique furniture consists of beds, chairs, desks and most importantly the throne. The Arabs and the Mughals took their craftsmen with them wherever they went while conquering the countries. The Mughal designs in the architecture and furniture are still revered as awe-inspiring. The examples of such designs and still intact pieces of Desks can be seen at the museums and historical palaces in the south asian countries like India. These antiques are kept in the custody of the board or the government itself. The archeological excavations have uncovered and retrieved partial works of long forgotten civilization. These works like the Desks and the other articles give us the idea on the lifestyles and the philosophy and social structure of that time. The expensive articles such as Tables and desks were traded to different parts of the world and that is the reason why there were some distant work of arts found in entirely alien territories. These were also used in barter trade and it was a common practice in diplomacy and courtesy between the kingdoms to appease each other with gifts of unique work of craftsmanship.

The antique furniture, if procured or bought through auction or otherwise should be carefully taken care of. Professional help should be sought in rightly dating the antique and also to have guidance on the subject of up keeping and maintenance of the prized catch. Since these artifacts cost a fortune and carelessness in maintaining them can mean the loss of the whole amount and a major heartburn as, for an antique collector, there can be no loss greater than the loss of a historical legacy. The retouching or reinstatement of the Desks should also be carried in consultation and accordance to the guidance of experts and professional so that the sanctity of the antique Desk is kept intact and the structure is also lent strength to last more years. Artificial environment control is needed at times to keep them in the condition as they are now.
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Peoples’ taste and inclination for something special and unique, especially on the rare and once in a life time occasions such as wedding, prompt them to make each moment memorable in their life. An Engagement ring holds an important place in the lives of everyone be it royalty or ordinary person. Earlier expensive and unique ornaments including the rings were only for the royalty and its ministers, but now days these have fallen in the range of buying capacity of an ordinary man as well.

An Antique Engagement ring is the one that is aged back to many centuries or even thousands of years old. These rings are made with precious stones which are at times very rare and even older. Diamond being one of the objects of craving for millions of people across the world finds its place even in history for its beauty and magnificence. Invaluable tags associated with them made these diamonds a priced possession. Diamonds are made of primarily – Carbon. Under huge pressure and enormous temperature, carbon and other rocks, turn into diamonds.

These diamonds can be in a very raw formation hence they are polished and enriched by various scientific processes and ultimately cut into required sizes. Diamonds are the hardest known material/substance on earth. The biggest diamond known in the history was KOHINOOR diamond which was discovered and presented to the king in India. The same Kohinoor diamond was taken away by the English during the British colonization. Kohinoor diamond is on display in United Kingdom as a part of nation treasure. There have been instances recorded in the history where the size of precious stones like Ruby, were found to be quite unimaginable but were worn by the royalty and rich people in necklaces, bangles, rings or bracelets etc.

The past Kings and Queen sported the most expensive of the precious stones. The rings were considered as the part of the royal heritage and were prided by the royalty. Rings found relevance in church where the POPE wears a big ring which has seal of the Vatican church and each POPE has his own distinct ring with precious stone studded in it, such as diamonds or rubies. This ring is considered as sacred. There is a fancy and enigma related to this ring as people find themselves revering for an opportunity to KISS the ring. An antique ring is slated as a special object and is priced very high. The weirdly priced rings are thus procured by high and mighty class of society. These antique engagement rings are chased by the celebrities to make their bonding or association memorable and give a piece of something to write about in the media. Engagement or wedding is not only between two individuals but it is a coming together of two families and a group of people which are bound by a common link. This whole new excitement is marked as a special occasion as it denotes the formalizing of the bond and start of a new life for two individuals. An engagement ring thus becomes an important piece of object with emotions attached with it. The rings are used not only for the purpose of engagement but also work as gifts of love. Jewelry being the most sought after thing by the ladies, it makes for a big market for the jewelers. The rings are and were used as accessory by both men and women. The stone studied jewelry was not only worn by the royalty to inspire awe in the masses but also had various medicinal and astrological implications attached to them. The reasons for war, since time known, have been waged for land and wealth. The most powerful kingdoms were those who had not only the military might but also the wealth like gold and precious stones like diamonds. These diamonds are dug up from the ground. Africa has many diamond mines which were dug up relentlessly by the men even disturbing the ecological balance of the nature. The man made crater or hole dug up in South Africa is the other man made structure which is visible from space, after the wall of China. This was a diamond mine which was exploited to the hilt to quench the thirst of the diamond crazy public. These diamonds once dug, are sent to Asian countries like India (which is a major hub and largest in its category of importing diamonds) to polish them and cut them into different sizes for use in different segments of jewelry. These are then exported to different parts of the world to be sold. The rings are generally made of Gold or silver but lately platinum has also made inroads in this category. The rings are also made of different materials such as Ashtdhatu which is a combination of eight different metals.

These rings are believed to carry medicinal and healing qualities. A ring when comes in contact with the skin round the finger, it is believed it emits healing vibes into the blood that cures various ailments of the person. The precious stones like ruby, diamonds etc similarly have astrological and medical benefits for the user (it is believed in many cultures). The idea behind it is that everyone is governed by the attraction or gravitation of heavenly bodies particularly the planets. The movement of these planets brings changes in the mental and physical state of men. The astrological birth chart of a person is calculated by taking into account the coordinates of the place of birth, the date & time of birth which is then coincided with the planetary positions at that particular time. Each planet shows or is governed by distinct qualities hence to alter those qualities these precious stones are advised to be worn in particular metal, next to skin. It is also advised to be worn in the particular finger; hence the ring is not only jewelry but something more, if these beliefs are to be believed. The rings are therefore most popular piece of ornament for the humans.
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Chair as the name suggests is a commodity or an article or a piece either wood/metal, which is generally used in human habitats for the purpose of rendering usefulness and relaxation to the person. The Chair can be for decoration or a showpiece or even a utility object. Chair used to be a luxury accessory in the historic times, as the cost of procurement of such articles was high; hence could only be afforded by particular class or the royalty. Chair of those times could not generally sustain the lashing of time thus very few articles or Chair could be retrieved from those times. Antique Chair thus, is/are the ones from the last century or so. Antique Chair were designed and made by a selected craftsman of that time. Each era or age showed its own unique features and styles in designs of not only architecture but also of the furniture like Chair, and craftsmanship. The articles like Chair, retrieved were mainly made of wood and wrought iron. Metal was introduced in the recorded history at sometime around 2000BC.These antiques were designed and customized as per the convenience and usefulness of the prospective buyer. Care was taken by the craftsman to keep in mind the taste of the buyer and the utility, as briefed by the prospective owner of the furniture. Hence Chairs were made either movable or fixed/stationary catering to the particular needs.

The traces of the Chair can be related to the Stone Age or the pre historic time when humans were nomads and used to roam from places to places in search of food. The inception of civilization considered to be starting near the water bodies like river, give an in depth peak into the earliest civilization such as harrapan civilization. Not only were their cities with modern amenities such as roads and community center, but these places boasted of a distinct style of craftsmanship in not only architecture but also in the lifestyle and objects used for their usefulness such as furniture. As in the case of many other trends like architecture, the Greeks and Egyptians introduced the best-known designs in Chairs. These were then sold to Romans who took these designs and fused their own designs in Chair to give great examples of craftsmanship. The royalty was treated with lavishly designed Chairs not only in their palaces but also in the community centers and the courts. Many of the antique articles have faded away in oblivion mainly due to poor keep up and maintenance of these legendry legacies by the heirs of the owners of these pieces of arts. Climatic condition like humidity, plays important role in the lifeline of the objects particularly made of wood and metal. The astonishing fact of the antique Chair is the durability; most of the articles retrieved can stand the termite attack, which clearly show the expertise in selecting the raw material and finishing done by the craftsmen. As the humans started settling down in civilization they created chair homes and decorated them with items of necessity, which turned into the so-called “furniture”. The archaeological excavations have discovered intact pieces of immaculate designs of furniture like chairs and chairs. Stones, marble, granite and even glass were used to give a different and unique style to the prevalent styles in chairs. The royalty were furnished lavishly and ornated Chair with the expensive stones imbibed and embedded in the Chair itself. This became a field to showcase the creativity and imagination of the craftsmanship even in the modern history.

We find references in the 18th century when the metal was used in Chair but the cost of furniture, which was handmade or came in the direct supervision of a skilled craftsman, were priced high. Here the craftsman with his team is involved in each step of making a piece of Chair like designing, cutting, assembling and even polishing; such services were afforded only by the selected few to cater to the artistic taste of them or mostly to show off the specially designed work of art as a prized possession.

The antique furniture consists of beds, chairs, chairs and most importantly the throne. The Arabs and the Mughals took their craftsmen with them wherever they went while conquering the countries. The Mughal designs in the architecture and furniture are still revered as awe-inspiring. The examples of such designs and still intact pieces of Chairs can be seen at the museums and historical palaces in the south asian countries like India. These antiques are kept in the custody of the board or the government itself. The archeological excavations have uncovered and retrieved partial works of long forgotten civilization. These works like the Chairs and the other articles give us the idea on the lifestyles and the philosophy and social structure of that time. The expensive articles such as Chairs were traded to different parts of the world and that is the reason why there were some distant work of arts found in entirely alien territories. These were also used in barter trade and it was a common practice in diplomacy and courtesy between the kingdoms to appease each other with gifts of unique work of craftsmanship.

The antique furniture, if procured or bought through auction or otherwise should be carefully taken care of. Professional help should be sought in rightly dating the antique and also to have guidance on the subject of up keeping and maintenance of the prized catch. Since these artifacts cost a fortune and carelessness in maintaining them can mean the loss of the whole amount and a major heartburn as, for an antique collector, there can be no loss greater than the loss of a historical legacy. The retouching or reinstatement of the Chairs should also be carried in consultation and accordance to the guidance of experts and professional so that the sanctity of the antique Chair is kept intact and the structure is also lent strength to last more years. Artificial environment control is needed at times to keep them in the condition as they are now.
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Antique collectors are the authorized or (at times) non licensed, brokers or dealers of antique articles or the individuals who belong to a niche class with taste and inclination to procure historic and unique items. Auction houses are also keen antique collectors, because they see major business potential in reselling them. The main lifelines of antique business are the segment of individuals who take pride and honour. in possessing the antiques. For some this is a hobby for others it might be a serious involvement with regards to art and history or the academic inclination. One thing binds them all is the curiosity, awe and respect for these historic legacy. These antique dealers operate from their shops or even garages where they have accumulated antiques from historic times. Antique auction are also the platform where these antique dealers converge, not only to procure antiques but also to interact with other dealers and antique collectors who might be prospective clients for them. The collection of these articles by a selected few people in the world, and even the government and states, have made this a unique industry, though it is not termed as formal industry but if the amount of money involved in transaction of procuring the antiques can be considerd, then it may even leave many industrial segments way behind.

The number of people, professionals and the companies involved in the trading and owning these antiques if taken into account, makes it worth a formidable industry segment. Antiques dealerships and collection, also provide employment to many people, including the professionals. The formal and disciplined structure of the working and operation in the antique market has made people aware and instilled curiosity among the masses as well. Since everybody carries in his heart the pride and love for the culture, and the ancestors; anything related to that culture, that too from past is revered as a part of the legacy from the ancestors. Though they might not afford these articles but they surely have interest in tracking them and witnessing them. This is giving rise to a platform or area in market/economy, which will be the link between the demand and supply for the antique articles. The list of operators or sellers/auctioneers can be found in a compiled list of the places and professionals in this business. This antique guide helps the customer/client to channelize his effects and approach in the right places or people. These antique guides also furnish important information on the antique articles or objects. Online Platform such as online guides makes the work of searching, a lot more easier for the customer. These antique guides also act as the source of revenue generation for the sellers, who earlier had only a selected a few in the particular area, to whom these artifacts could be displayed to and sold. The compilation and introduction of these antique guides made the pitch global rather than regional. The printed version of the antique guides helps the regional and local people to know, where to seek the desired items, locally. Modern cities have seen increase in the rise of such outlets offering antiques. These outlets offer small antiques at a price which is affordable to the common man .The auction houses also take the help of these antique guides to, publicize the particular auction or to invite the prospective bidders to the auction. These antiques guides also provide a meeting ground of professionals who serve this field of antique evaluation, maintenance and tracing .It is advised to consult with the professionals before buying any antique, as he can guide you to the various aspects of which one might not be aware of or might not have the in-sight into. Even the sellers of the antiques take the guidance and help from these professionals to reconstruct or maintain a dying piece of art/antique, before auctioning it. There is a time period given to the buyers/bidders, at the auction when they could watch these articles closely and make an evaluation by themselves. Hence, the buyer as well as the seller should have the entire information about the article on the block, to be sold. The lack of knowledge or disregard to any piece of information, can lead to undermining or less pricing of an article, which may mean loss to the seller. Simultaneously, a buyer might overbid for an antique, which might not be the worth of money being paid .In many states the auctioneer needs to be licensed person or a licensed firm to carry out the auction. These auctions are of different types some auctions have a minimum bid and if the bidding did not reach to the particular minimum bid, the item is not sold. In other auctions there may be a charge levied by the auction house or auctioneer on the seller for a percentage on the article when/if sold.

Antiques are seen from the art lover�s point of view and hence can be valued by the buyer only. These historical article known as antiques, are timeless and invaluable but to put a tag on them in monetary terms, is one of the difficult part of the work. Antique guides are the best places to track the related information for any aspects of antiques. A brief history of the antique is also attached to give the customer a peek into the facts and what to expect out of a bid. Additional information on the subject and the article can also be found in these guides. Antique guides work as excellent help to the novice and amateurs who might have discovered the taste and inkling for the antiques. The insight and first hand knowledge on where to look for the particular category of items; how to prepare for the bidding; the inside out of the auction process and handing over process; and most importantly the tips for healthy maintenance of the artifacts, after possessing the antique. The tips and useful Dos and Don�ts help the prospect or an art lover to get prepared for the responsibility of taking the timeless legacy forward. These historical artifacts instill a feeling of nostalgia and awe in the art lovers as by just being in the same frame and so close to an antique, one feels taken to an entirely different level. One feels himself to be a part of the history and through the antique, try to get close to it. The owner of these artifacts should also remember the responsibility of possessing such a gift of art by taking a good care of them and pass them to the next generation learn and experience the same things that we in our generation might have felt in witnessing the small but not insignificant part of history.
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Antique, as the name suggests, is a Latin word which means Old or aged. Antique is referred mainly to the articles or objects/commodities which are old and have some uniqueness attached to them, which make them not only special but invaluable as well. Antique is generally referred to the articles which are rare and not found easily. The antiques or old works are generally collected by a few (small group of people) or by a niche class who revere these as a possession which not only sets them apart from others, as they become the proud owners of piece of history, but also gives them a feeling of fulfillment as art collector. These pieces of art or objects are attained through auctions conducted by either the owner or the company that owns these artifacts. These antiques are also passed on to the generations as part of the legacy or at times are even donated to the governments of the country for the upkeep or donated to the museums to make them available for general public to view and witness the history associated with these. The first instances of antique fair can be traced back to almost 2500 years from now when the Greeks used to auction such artifacts, antiques and other objects taken after a war, from the conquered country/state. There are clear mentions in the history about the instances of Roman soldiers auctioning the loots of such antiques, some 1800 years ago.

A fair, as the term refers, to the gathering of people for an occasion such as auction or carnival. Here the value or price of the antique is decided by the buyer and not by the seller. There are different kinds of fair/auctions, one is, where there is a base level of price and the bid starts from this price and bids increase thereafter. An auction is closed when a particular bid is not challenged by any other bidder. The price of the antique is generally gauged through the perspective of the buyer in general. The other kind of auction is the one where there is no base pricing/ usually known as reserve price, put by the seller or auctioneer. Earlier an antique fair/auction formed a part of the social occasion and celebration. Most popular and unique bid in the history finds mention at the start of the last millennium, in the year 193 A.D. when the whole Roman Empire was put for auction by Praetorian Guard who killed the emperor and put the whole empire up for grabs for the highest bidder. Didius bid the most and hence claimed the empire, this eventually ended tragically when he was overthrown and beheaded by Septimus who conquered Rome.

Even these days there are weird and unique items and antiques, placed for auction/fair, like a 500 year old hooded skull. The concept has become popular even in countries like China where a painting called “The Rain Flower Terrace” was sold at a record price of US $ 5.8 million. These prove as an instant source of sale and revenue generation for the seller. These days the fair/auction is conducted online as well, that is on the internet, with websites like e-bay, which provide a convenient platform to the seller as well as buyer to converge and interact. This has raised the fair/auction to a new level. A prospective buyer can take part in the antique fair/auction conducted online, while sitting in the far corner of the world and even then be an active part of the whole process. There are big fair/auctioning houses which conduct such auctions across the world, like Sotheby’s, Christie’s. These companies not only conduct fair/auctions or sell but also evaluate the antiques and artifacts for the convenience of all. They are even owners of some antiques. The nostalgia and awe related to an antique makes it more valued, and so does the rarity or extinction of the similar objects from the world. Most avid buyers used to be the upper class or high class society people who procured the antiques to show them off in their social circle. This has changed after emergence of internet and diversification of the class of commodities added in the category. Antique collection is not limited to niche class of society these days. Stamp collection and coin collection have garnered more people into the list of proud owners of an antique.

The Auctioneers are the licensed professionals and the ones allowed to conduct an fair/auction. There are professionals from the different fields who are consulted in an antique fair/auction and at times, their presence is mandatory for an antique to be auctioned. These professionals are the experts in the field of the object to be auctioned. Usually the fair/auctioning company or the group of buyers asks for the services of historians, laboratories to estimate the age of the artifacts or for estimating the value of the commodity. In United States of America, the motors and vehicle category can identify an item older than twenty five years, to be an antique, though for other items the timeline is generally hundred years. Most serious and big auctions involve a lot of money to the volumes of millions of dollars and hence many authorities are involved in smooth completion of these antique fair/auctions.

There are specific guidelines and parameters wherein it is decided if the particular antique or artifact lies in the jurisdiction of a person or individual or the state/government. There are cases where the objects were discovered while digging a field. Though the field or land may be owned by an individual the discovered antiques are considered as the property of the state. The land is then researched for the possibility of more such artifacts, and if the possibility looks good, it is then bought by the government to undertake the archeological search. The government also, at times, organizes fair/auctions the antiques to generate revenue or when it feels the upkeep can be costly and the antique could be better cared by someone better equipped.
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Antique Box is referred to the ordinary boxes used for storing items. These antique boxes are special because they come with precious stones embedded in them. These boxes were used by the people of past generations to store their valuables. The antique boxes especially from the historic times are revered the most because they not only have precious stones embedded on them but have stylish carvings on them. These antique boxes are made of wood, but the ones belonging to the royalty or rich peasants, were made of precious metals like brass, silver and even gold. At antique auction, an antique box is generally referred to the old box which is sold with other items intact in it. Peoples’ taste and inclination for something special and unique, especially on the rare and once in a life time occasions such as wedding, prompt them to make each moment memorable in their life. An Engagement ring holds an important place in the lives of everyone be it royalty or ordinary person. Earlier expensive and unique ornaments including the rings were only for the royalty and its ministers, but now days these have fallen in the range of buying capacity of an ordinary man as well.

An antique box was generally used by the wives of the royalty and rich peasants for storing their assets like ornaments, necklace and rings. An Antique Engagement ring is the one that is aged back to many centuries or even thousands of years old. These rings are made with precious stones which are at times very rare and even older. Diamond being one of the objects of craving for millions of people across the world, finds its place even in the history for its beauty and magnificence. Invaluable tags associated with them made these diamonds a priced possession. Diamonds are made of primarily – Carbon. Under huge pressure and enormous temperature, carbon and other rocks, turn into diamonds.

These diamonds can be in a very raw formation hence they are polished and enriched by various scientific processes and ultimately cut into required sizes. Diamonds are the hardest known material/substance on earth. The biggest diamond known in the history was KOHINOOR diamond which was discovered and presented to the king in India. The same Kohinoor diamond was taken away by the English during the British colonization. Kohinoor diamond is on display in United Kingdom as a part of nation treasure. There have been instances recorded in the history where the size of precious stones like Ruby, were found to be quite unimaginable but were worn by the royalty and rich people in necklaces, bangles, rings or bracelets etc.

The past Kings and Queen sported the most expensive of the precious stones. The rings were considered as the part of the royal heritage and were prided by the royalty. Rings found relevance in church where the POPE wears a big ring which has seal of the Vatican church and each POPE has his own distinct ring with precious stone studded in it, such as diamonds or rubies. This ring is considered as sacred. There is a fancy and enigma related to this ring as people find themselves revering for an opportunity to KISS the ring. An antique ring is slated as a special object and is priced very high. The weirdly priced rings are thus procured by high and mighty class of society. These antique engagement rings are chased by the celebrities to make their bonding or association memorable and give a piece of something to write about in the media. Engagement or wedding is not only between two individuals but it is a coming together of two families and a group of people which are bound by a common link. This whole new excitement is marked as a special occasion as it denotes the formalizing of the bond and start of a new life for two individuals. An engagement ring thus becomes an important piece of object with emotions attached with it. The rings are used not only for the purpose of engagement but also work as gifts of love. Jewelry being the most sought after thing by the ladies, it makes for a big market for the jewelers. The rings are and were used as accessory by both men and women. The stone studied jewelry was not only worn by the royalty to inspire awe in the masses but also had various medicinal and astrological implications attached to them. The reasons for war, since time known, have been waged for land and wealth. The most powerful kingdoms were those who had not only the military might but also the wealth like gold and precious stones like diamonds.

These diamonds are dug up from the ground. Africa has many diamond mines which were dug up relentlessly by the men even disturbing the ecological balance of the nature. The man made crater or hole dug up in South Africa is the other man made structure which is visible from space, after the wall of China. This was a diamond mine which was exploited to the hilt to quench the thirst of the diamond crazy public. These diamonds once dug, are sent to Asian countries like India (which is a major hub and largest in its category of importing diamonds) to polish them and cut them into different sizes for use in different segments of jewelry. These are then exported to different parts of the world to be sold. The rings are generally made of Gold or silver but lately platinum has also made inroads in this category. The rings are also made of different materials such as Ashtdhatu which is a combination of eight different metals. These rings are believed to carry medicinal and healing qualities. A ring when comes in contact with the skin round the finger, it is believed it emits healing vibes into the blood that cures various ailments of the person. The precious stones like ruby, diamonds etc similarly have astrological and medical benefits for the user (it is believed in many cultures). The idea behind it is that everyone is governed by the attraction or gravitation of heavenly bodies particularly the planets. The movement of these planets brings changes in the mental and physical state of men.

The astrological birth chart of a person is calculated by taking into account the coordinates of the place of birth, the date & time of birth which is then coincided with the planetary positions at that particular time. Each planet shows or is governed by distinct qualities hence to alter those qualities these precious stones are advised to be worn in particular metal, next to skin. It is also advised to be worn in the particular finger; hence the ring is not only jewelry but something more, if these beliefs are to be believed. The rings are therefore most popular piece of ornament for the humans.
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Antique China is the article made of clay and porcelain by the potters. These are basically pottery done through the usual process and decorated with paintings on the surface of the wares. Pottery is the art or moulding of clay and china into various distinct designs by the craftsman. These are the articles made by heating the clay into a pre decided mould. The clay is set into patterns when it is wet and soft. The clay is then put on the potter’s wheel where the wheel is moved at a speed so that the force (centrifugal force) forces the clay outwards there by forming the patterns. Craftsman rubs the surface smooth, thereby lending a particular shape to the clay.

Antique China or the chinawares are the articles which fall in the most sought after. These Antique china find their origin in the 15th -16th century. The pottery is done by heating the china structure to a temperature of more than Five Hundred Degree Celsius 500 C. This heating gives the china a stable and strong structure. This allows the moulds and pottery from getting disintegrated or dissolving into the water. The pottery is believed to be the oldest art whose traces can be found in history. POTTERY is the articles which have been the first ones to be dug out during the archeological excavations. These provided knowledge and information about the period of that time. Pottery, in pre-historic times was done with earth and clay and though these were not so tough but solved the purpose for which these were built. The retrieved articles are only the partial or disintegrated parts of pottery.

The earliest civilization such as MOHANJODARO, had pottery at a high level of expertise on this aspect of art. POTTERY is still a big segment of art and craft. The modern POTTERY uses technology and devices as heater and moulds to make better and creative pieces of art which are sold in the exhibitions. There are art houses and designers who sell these articles to the art lovers. Pottery was done in pre-historic times for formulation of necessary jobs and to save or store water and other commodities. In ASIA it is still a popular way of living and is a part of rural industry which gives employment to many. The earthen pots are still used as in ancient times for storing drinking water. The porous surface of the clay allows the heat to escape, hence keeping the water cool. These pots were also used to transport water from source of water to the homes. Taps and pipelines are laid in modern times, before that these were used to fetch the water from ponds or wells. To make them look pretty, people designed these with various designs. They were also made in different sizes to facilitate and cater to different needs.

Different tools and methods are used in Pottery. To get a desired shape in the moulds, the mould is set on the potter’s wheel and rotated at a speed and a tool is placed near the mould so that it touches the mould slightly thereby giving it a certain desired shape. This method is known as JIGGERING. When the similar kind of method is applied from the inside of the mould it is termed as JOLLEYING. These methods are used by the potters and craftsmen to give the article the specific and unique shapes. To give a different and more colourful outlook, different coloured clay is added into the mould. Sand and baked clay are also added at times to give the mould a different view or different property or shape. A thin layer of cream, known as clay slip is applied on the mould before putting the mould in the fire; this layer helps in protecting the mould from extreme temperature and to give a definite shape to the mould. Designs are applied on the mould with the help of a method called Lithography; here the whole process is carried out in three major steps. One when the colour which is to be applied on the mould, is covered on the mould; second a protective layer is applied to protect the glass or the mould from disintegrating; the last layer is of the design which is either printed or otherwise, is applied over the last two layers. At the end when the mould is hardened the design or the image has been shifted and incorporated over the mould. Clay is made of small granules, these granules are basically silicate minerals, and clay is a hydrous substance. Clay is made of dust particles and mud which come from disintegration of the rocks. To protect the finished mould or article, a thin layer of glaze is applied on the surface article. This process of lining a thin layer is generally referred to as Glazing. Glazing is primarily done to protect the finished article or pot from water or dust. These are also done or applied to give the mould or rather the finished article, a colourful shining look, glazing also helps in reducing the dust particles settled on the surface of the article.

The whole process of molding is done with the help of Potter’s wheel; this is nothing but an ordinary platform which is turned at a definite speed, so that centrifugal force is applied from the centre of the article. The china or mould is put in the centre of the potter’s wheel. The Potter’s wheel is moved or rotated either with the help of stick, which was how it was done in pre-historic times; nowadays they can be moved or rotated with feet or more recently with electric motor. There are antique pottery and even potter’s wheel, discovered from the excavation of the historical sites. The most antique or oldest of them all is the potter’s wheel which is over 9000 nine thousand years old. It is believed to be from the 6000 six thousand Before Christ. These antique potteries has not only given us the age of the civilization but also provided valuable insights into the lifestyles, and way of living and the culture of that time. First recorded writings were also believed to be carried out on clay. Porcelain, clay and chinaware have thus been the canvas of human artistry since very long time.
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Antique, as the name suggests, is a Latin word which means Old or aged. Antique is referred mainly to the articles or objects/commodities which are old and have some uniqueness attached to them, which make them not only special but invaluable as well. Antique is generally referred to the articles which are rare and not found easily. The antiques or old works are generally collected by a few (small group of people) or by a niche class who revere these as a possession which not only sets them apart from others, as they become the proud owners of piece of history, but also gives them a feeling of fulfillment as art collector. These pieces of art or objects are attained through auctions conducted by either the owner or the company that owns these artifacts. These antiques are also passed on to the generations as part of the legacy or at times are even donated to the governments of the country for the upkeep or donated to the museums to make them available for general public to view and witness the history associated with these. The first instances of antique auction can be traced back to almost 2500 years from now when the Greeks used to auction such artifacts, antiques and other objects taken after a war, from the conquered country/state. There are clear mentions in the history about the instances of Roman soldiers auctioning the loots of such antiques, some 1800 years ago.

An auction, as the term refers, to the process of selling an object after bidding. In other words the object is sold to the highest bidder after the fall of the hammer. Here the value or price of the antique is decided by the buyer and not by the seller. There are different kinds of auctions, one is, where there is a base level of price and the bid starts from this price and bids increase thereafter. An auction is closed when a particular bid is not challenged by any other bidder. The price of the antique is generally gauged through the perspective of the buyer in general. The other kind of auction is the one where there is no base pricing/ usually known as reserve price, put by the seller or auctioneer. Earlier an antique auction formed a part of the social occasion and celebration. Most popular and unique bid in the history finds mention at the start of the last millennium, in the year 193 A.D. when the whole Roman Empire was put for auction by Praetorian Guard who killed the emperor and put the whole empire up for grabs for the highest bidder. Didius bid the most and hence claimed the empire, this eventually ended tragically when he was overthrown and beheaded by Septimus who conquered Rome.

Even these days there are weird and unique items and antiques, placed for auction, like a 500 year old hooded skull. The concept has become popular even in countries like China where a painting called “The Rain Flower Terrace” was sold at a record price of US $ 5.8 million. These prove as an instant source of sale and revenue generation for the seller. These days the auction is conducted online as well, that is on the internet, with websites like e-bay, which provide a convenient platform to the seller as well as buyer to converge and interact. This has raised the auction to a new level. A prospective buyer can take part in the antique auction conducted online, while sitting in the far corner of the world and even then be an active part of the whole process. There are big auctioning houses which conduct such auctions across the world, like Sotheby’s, Christie’s. These companies not only conduct auctions or sell but also evaluate the antiques and artifacts for the convenience of all. They are even owners of some antiques. The nostalgia and awe related to an antique makes it more valued, and so does the rarity or extinction of the similar objects from the world. Most avid buyers used to be the upper class or high class society people who procured the antiques to show them off in their social circle. This has changed after emergence of internet and diversification of the class of commodities added in the category. Antique collection is not limited to niche class of society these days. Stamp collection and coin collection have garnered more people into the list of proud owners of an antique.

The Auctioneers are the licensed professionals and the ones allowed to conduct an auction. There are professionals from the different fields who are consulted in an antique auction and at times, their presence is mandatory for an antique to be auctioned. These professionals are the experts in the field of the object to be auctioned. Usually the auctioning company or the group of buyers asks for the services of historians, laboratories to estimate the age of the artifacts or for estimating the value of the commodity. In United States of America, the motors and vehicle category can identify an item older than twenty five years, to be an antique, though for other items the timeline is generally hundred years. Most serious and big auctions involve a lot of money to the volumes of millions of dollars and hence many authorities are involved in smooth completion of these antique auctions.

There are specific guidelines and parameters wherein it is decided if the particular antique or artifact lies in the jurisdiction of a person or individual or the state/government. There are cases where the objects were discovered while digging a field. Though the field or land may be owned by an individual the discovered antiques are considered as the property of the state. The land is then researched for the possibility of more such artifacts, and if the possibility looks good, it is then bought by the government to undertake the archeological search. The government also, at times, auctions the antiques to generate revenue or when it feels the upkeep can be costly and the antique could be better cared by someone better equipped.
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Antique dealers are the authorized or (at times) non licensed, brokers or sellers of antique articles. These antique dealers operate from their shops or even garages where they have accumulated antiques from historic times. Antique auction are also the platform where these antique dealers converge, not only to procure antiques but also to interact with other dealers and antique collectors who might be prospective clients for them. The collection of these articles by a selected few people in the world, and even the government and states, have made this a unique industry, though it is not termed as formal industry but if the amount of money involved in transaction of procuring the antiques can be considerd, then it may even leave many industrial segments way behind. The number of people, professionals and the companies involved in the trading and owning these antiques if taken into account, makes it worth a formidable industry segment. Antiques dealerships and collection, also provide employment to many people, including the professionals. The formal and disciplined structure of the working and operation in the antique market has made people aware and instilled curiosity among the masses as well. Since everybody carries in his heart the pride and love for the culture, and the ancestors; anything related to that culture, that too from past is revered as a part of the legacy from the ancestors.

Though they might not afford these articles but they surely have interest in tracking them and witnessing them. This is giving rise to a platform or area in market/economy, which will be the link between the demand and supply for the antique articles. The list of operators or sellers/auctioneers can be found in a compiled list of the places and professionals in this business. This antique guide helps the customer/client to channelize his effects and approach in the right places or people. These antique guides also furnish important information on the antique articles or objects. Online Platform such as online guides makes the work of searching, a lot more easier for the customer. These antique guides also act as the source of revenue generation for the sellers, who earlier had only a selected a few in the particular area, to whom these artifacts could be displayed to and sold. The compilation and introduction of these antique guides made the pitch global rather than regional. The printed version of the antique guides helps the regional and local people to know, where to seek the desired items, locally. Modern cities have seen increase in the rise of such outlets offering antiques.

These outlets offer small antiques at a price which is affordable to the common man .The auction houses also take the help of these antique guides to, publicize the particular auction or to invite the prospective bidders to the auction. These antiques guides also provide a meeting ground of professionals who serve this field of antique evaluation, maintenance and tracing .It is advised to consult with the professionals before buying any antique, as he can guide you to the various aspects of which one might not be aware of or might not have the in-sight into. Even the sellers of the antiques take the guidance and help from these professionals to reconstruct or maintain a dying piece of art/antique, before auctioning it. There is a time period given to the buyers/bidders, at the auction when they could watch these articles closely and make an evaluation by themselves. Hence, the buyer as well as the seller should have the entire information about the article on the block, to be sold. The lack of knowledge or disregard to any piece of information, can lead to undermining or less pricing of an article, which may mean loss to the seller. Simultaneously, a buyer might overbid for an antique, which might not be the worth of money being paid .In many states the auctioneer needs to be licensed person or a licensed firm to carry out the auction. These auctions are of different types some auctions have a minimum bid and if the bidding did not reach to the particular minimum bid, the item is not sold. In other auctions there may be a charge levied by the auction house or auctioneer on the seller for a percentage on the article when/if sold. Antiques are seen from the art lover�s point of view and hence can be valued by the buyer only. These historical article known as antiques, are timeless and invaluable but to put a tag on them in monetary terms, is one of the difficult part of the work. Antique guides are the best places to track the related information for any aspects of antiques. A brief history of the antique is also attached to give the customer a peek into the facts and what to expect out of a bid. Additional information on the subject and the article can also be found in these guides. Antique guides work as excellent help to the novice and amateurs who might have discovered the taste and inkling for the antiques.

The insight and first hand knowledge on where to look for the particular category of items; how to prepare for the bidding; the inside out of the auction process and handing over process; and most importantly the tips for healthy maintenance of the artifacts, after possessing the antique. The tips and useful Dos and Don�ts help the prospect or an art lover to get prepared for the responsibility of taking the timeless legacy forward. These historical artifacts instill a feeling of nostalgia and awe in the art lovers as by just being in the same frame and so close to an antique, one feels taken to an entirely different level. One feels himself to be a part of the history and through the antique, try to get close to it. The owner of these artifacts should also remember the responsibility of possessing such a gift of art by taking a good care of them and pass them to the next generation learn and experience the same things that we in our generation might have felt in witnessing the small but not insignificant part of history.
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Clock, the name is derived from the Latin word cloca which in regional language means “bell”. It is a devise or a scientific object to measure time. Time is the basis and essence of everything, everywhere. Time is the only relative entity which has being constant since the inception of the universe. Hence it is natural that Man tried to measure it with different methods. Clock is an instrument, which was designed by man to measure time. Antique clocks are the ones which date back to many centuries or even millennium. Antique clocks are a collector’s dream because it relates to the time, thinking and progress of the historical events put in prospective in the present era. These antique clocks can be found in various museums, which show case historical articles for the general public to witness and to relate to them. There are museums worldwide which are especially dedicated to the antique clocks.

Previously the time was measured with the different techniques. Our ancestors have concluded that time is related to the rising and setting of sun daily. Hence it was infrenced that solar rays are the basis of measuring time. Sundial was thus invented and so was born the clock. These sundials when worked upon gave quite accurate time, it will be surprising to know that even now in modern times, clocks and there performances are compared with the sundial to detect any discrepancy in the clock. Chronometer is a term used for the clocks which are highly accurate. The clock and its invention can be termed as the foremost of human inventions. People used to measure time with different methods like the Egyptians who used even mercury and water to measure the unit of time.

Hour glass was also used especially in the Arabic world to measure the time. These hour glasses were customized to measure unit of time as one hour or couple of hours or even a day. Here the sand used to fall from a small hole from upper compartment to the lower compartment. Modern clock as we see with three arms denoting hours, minutes and seconds is supposed to be invented in the 13th (thirteenth) century. The antique clocks were made of a metal, wood or plastics. Clocks are covered with glass to minimize the impact of air and other resonance effects which might affect or distort the working of a clock and its accuracy.

Clocks find references in 12th century and 13th century because of the church’s daily record keeping. At the end of 13th century clock towers were build for the convenience of the people to relate there activities and daily routine in keeping with the time. The oldest mechanical clock is the one at Salisbury cathedral, which is believed to be built in the early years of 15 century. These mechanical clocks worked on the falling weight principle and were converted to coiled spring afterwards. It consisted of inter locking geyer.

Antique clocks, the ones which are small were designed and developed in 15th century in Europe. These clocks were used not only by the state administrations and royalty but also by the explorers, navigators, and sailors to keep track of accurate time. Thus clocks without pendulum were designed for explorers and sailors, as pendulum is rendered useless on ships. Eli is considered as the father of clock industry in America. Pendulum in the clocks worked on electro magnetic fields. These days the time keeping is done on two different scales namely 12 hour scale and 24-hour scale.

Scientific invention and technical advancement have made even a 30 years old clock to be an antique in this age when analogue and digital clocks are in use. Digital clocks do not have any traditional parts like dials or geyer wheels etc and provide high level of accuracy.

Addition of new features like alarms have popularized and diversified the roll of clocks. The solar clocks (sundials) were even popular in the Asian countries where huge structures were built not only to measure time but also to track the path of the planets and the positioning of the stars. The famous and marvelous structures like JANTAR MANTAR in New Delhi, India, helped the scholars of the era to closely study the planetary movements and measure not only time but also study the effects of various alignments of heavenly bodies. The solar eclipses and lunar eclipses were thus calculated to accurate timings. The effect of lunar movements on the water bodies were also understood precisely. The solar clocks gave the very accurate time and were adjusted as the winters came in to work in sync with the directional change or tilt of the earth. The time systems across the world are for the local substitutions and are synchronized with the GMT (Greenwich Mean Time) which is taken as reference point for assigning the time worldwide. Time is calculated in accordance to the coordinates of that place. Longitude and latitudes when referred give the exact location of a place. Time keeping is done at micro level by the various scientific departments to while gauging the earth’s movement around the sun and around its axis. Time unit is disintegrated to the smallest level to give more precise variations (if any). There is a concept of time saving in the USA (United States of America) when the time or clocks are tuned to an hour late or an hour early as per the climate. This time saving is done twice a year. Antique clocks not only relate to the wall clocks but also the small one that were carried on person by the user. These were designed meticulously and styled accordingly, to suit the tastes of the person owning these. The watches sported chains and were hooked to the part of the clothing there by making them easy to carry and use. Wrist watches were introduced pretty recently. Wrist watches have become more of an accessory which could be used for time. Jewel studded watches have become the fancy piece of accessories for the rich and the famous. Clocks and time, have bound the imagination of generations, though we take them for granted but when looked closely, there’s a lot behind measuring time.